As with the USA, due to the sheer size of Australia, it has six major climate zones but doesn't experience the extreme temperature differences seen in the northern hemisphere. Australia, as you can see from the map below, is mostly desert which is almost uninhabitable as it is so hot and dry with almost no rainfall during the course of a year.
Most of the population live in the coastal regions of New South Wales and Victoria in the south east of the country. There are also population concentrations to the east around Brisbane and the Gold Coast in Queensland, Adelaide on the south coast and Perth in the south west.
The desert and semi-arid grasslands are for the most part sparsely inhabited by the indigenous people of Australia.
Tropical - This region of Australia is found in the north of the country in the upper parts of Queensland and the Northern Territory. Here you can expect hot weather the whole year round. This climate differs from the desert and semi-arid climates in that it has a pronounced rainy season. Darwin and Cairns are the only major cities in the climate.
Desert - This climatic region covers the largest part of Australia, in fact most on central and western Australia are desert. Here you can expect extremely hot weather with almost no rainfall all year round. With the exception of Alice Springs, there are no major towns or cities in this region.
Semi-arid(Steppes or Grassland) - Regions that receive very little rainfall and are characterized by grassland. The semi-arid climate almost completley surrounds the desert in Austrlia. There are no major cities in this climatic region in Australia.
Mediterranean - This climate can be found in the south west and south of Australia. Here you can expect hot dry summers and mild winters. Major cities in this climatic region are Perth in Western Australia and Adelaide in South Australia.
Humid subtropical - Hot humid summers and mild cool winters, to the east of Austrlia, in this climatic region you will find Brisbane and Sydney
Oceanic - At the south east tip of Australia in Victoria and New South Wales is where you will find this climate. It features warm not hot summers and cool but not cold winters. Melbourne is the major city to be found in this climate. Tasmania also has an Oceanic climate.